Speargun

Whether you’re looking for the best speargun for beginners or you’re a veteran in the underwater field, one important fact remains constant: you need to choose the right spearfishing equipment for the job. Specifically, you need to choose the right speargun.

If you’re looking for a comprehensive guide to help you do just that, our spearfishing experts have shared some of their tips. Keep reading to learn what it takes to select the right speargun for your personal spearfishing needs.

Types of Spearguns

Before we get into selection criteria, it’s crucial to get the basics down so you can be sure you choose the right speargun. Basic number one: there are three types of spearguns leading the market today. Those two types of spearguns are pneumatic and band powered. Let’s take a quick look at some of the key identifiers of each type of speargun.

  • Pneumatic Spearguns – These spearguns were popular during the 1960s and 1970s, but are only used in a few parts of the world today. Many divers preferred these guns originally because they fired with minimal recoil and allowed divers to make longer-range shots with more accuracy. The power of this model is limited to the strength of the diver using it. These spearguns also require regular maintenance in order to maintain maximum performance.
  • Traditional Band Powered Spearguns – One advantage of operating a band powered speargun is its nearly complete silence when firing. Considering how easy it is to both maintain and use this piece of spearfishing equipment, it’s no wonder most underwater hunters prefer it to old school pneumatic spearguns.
  • Roller Spearguns – Roller spearguns have been around since the beginning of spearfishing, though new improvements in materials and designs have fueled a return in their popularity. While also powered by large rubber bands, roller spearguns pull the rubber and shaft over rollers mounted at the front of the gun.  The advantage here is that the bands apply steady and consistent energy to the shaft allowing for a longer stroke than traditional spearguns.  Another advantage is that these guns have relatively no recoil, as the rubber and shaft’s energy cancel each other out.

Components to Consider

Of course, there are still a few considerations to make after you’ve decided which type of speargun you’ll be using.  Like all spearfishing gear there is no universal speargun solution for everyone. It comes down to a matter of personal preference and abilities.  There are moving parts when it comes to your speargun. Let’s dive in!

  • Speargun Length – The length of your speargun will rely on several factors. Most importantly it will rely on the type and size of fish you’re hunting. If you’re hunting in cramped spaces like caves or poor visibility, you’ll want a speargun in the 70cm to 90cm range.  If you’re hunting for big game in open water, you’ll probably prefer a 150cm to 165cm speargun, for additional range to hit the fish.
  • Shaft Tip – Of course, one of the most important aspects of a speargun is the spear itself. The most important part of the shaft is the tip. There are two commonly found spear tips, the Flopper and the Slip Tip.  The flopper shaft uses a hinged barb that deploys after the shaft passes through the fish.  A slip-tip detaches from the shat after penetrating the fish yet remains attached to the shaft with either spectra or wire leader.  For reef fish floppers are predominately preferred where as for blue water fish and more delicate fish, slip-tips are preferred.
  • Speargun Bands – When selecting your speargun bands, the two most important factors to consider are stretch and diameter. Shorter bands require more strength to load, but they also provide more power when shooting.

Ultimately, there’s a near endless amount of customization when it comes to selecting the perfect speargun. We haven’t even discussed our homemade speargun equipment yet. These essential pieces of spearfishing equipment could make or break your experience, so make sure you’re choosing wisely.

If you’re a beginner, you want to go with equipment that is easy to use and maintain. For more information and a wide range of spearfishing gear for beginners and experts alike, contact Neptonics today.

Guns

How to Pick the Right Speargun Length For You

There is no simple answer for the right speargun length you need. There are several factors that you will need to answer for the type of diving you are doing. By answering these questions you can narrow down the right length speargun you will need for the diving you will be doing. Here are some of the important considerations when picking your speargun length. 

Visibility

The biggest factor in picking your speargun should be normal visibility in your dive location. Visibility is so important because it will impact fish behavior dramatically. The further away the fish can see a diver the longer the shot that diver may have to take. That means in clean water you will likely need a longer speargun to get the longer ranges. The opposite side of the spectrum is still an important to consider. In bad visibility you will want a short, maneuverable speargun to get the spear pointed at the fish quickly. Even in bad visibility it is important to be able to see the end of your speargun, the fish, and what is beyond the fish. Make sure you are practicing safe spearfishing and always know what is beyond your target. 

Maneuverability

After normal visibility conditions you need to consider the speargun’s maneuverability. Other than the physical designs of the speargun, the length is going to impact how well the speargun tracks through the water. If you are hunting reef fish that dart into hole, ledges, or caves that could mean the right length speargun for you is going to be a short gun. You may not need to take a long shot, but you will need to get your speargun pointed at a fish in a hole quickly before it hides even deeper in the rocks. Pelagic species, that stay in the water column, may give you a longer opportunity to get the speargun pointed at the fish, so maneuverability may be less important. 

The Right Speargun Length for the Fish You Are Targeting

The last big consideration comes down to the type of fish you are targeting. Some species just stay far away from divers. So you need a long, powerful speargun to get the range needed to hunt them. Wahoo, Tuna, and Billfish are all great examples of fish that usually require longer shots. There are always stories about divers who were lucky enough to get point blank shots, but overall these fish keep their distance. That means long, bulk spearguns with four to six bands. That size gun loses maneuverability, and really can’t be used in limited visibility, but it is a specialized speargun for a specific purpose. Most reef species don’t need as much speargun, but it can come down to your hunting technique as well. 

Picking the Right Speargun Length – What it All Means To You

You should get a speargun that has a similar effective range to the visibility where you dive. The effective range of a speargun is generally, about two to three times the length of the speargun’s band stretch distance. Notable exceptions come into play if you are targeting reef species in holes. Then you just want a speargun that has enough power to put the spear shaft through the fish. The challenge of picking the right speargun comes down to the problem that there is no single speargun that meets all of a diver’s needs. As time goes by you will collect all the spearguns you need for the types of diving you do. 

A5 Flyer



Properly Loading Your Speargun – Band Size, Load Assists, and More

Properly loading your speargun can be a challenge. There are a couple techniques and tools that make loading a speargun easier. There are also different material option of bands that can make loading your speargun bands easier or harder. 

Proper Loading Technique

Most spearguns can be loaded using proper technique rather than brute force. Trying to load a speargun through brute force alone can result in some challenges. Loading a speargun requires a few muscle groups that are not the most common exercises in normal life. See this video on proper speargun loading technique for rear handle spearguns.

Band Length

The band length is the biggest factor that makes a band difficult to pull back. That being said, your spear shaft won’t hit the fish hard enough to penetrate without the right length spear shaft. The optimal stretch for a speargun band is 350% stretch. The formula to find the length your bands should be is:Neptonics Custom Power Bands

This formula applies to all the different diameter bands. Making your bands stretch more than 350% doesn’t dramatically increase the power you are adding to your spear shaft. Making longer bands reduces the power to the spear shaft. If you reduce the power of your bands too much you won’t be able to shoot through your fish. 

Band Diameter

There are several thickness band options available for your speargun. The thickness of the bands determines the amount of stored energy in the bands. 9/16” (14mm) bands store approximately 90 pounds of force per band. 5/8” (16mm) bands store about 110 pounds of force per band. 3/4” (19mm) bands store 130 pounds of force per band. The challenge with bigger bands is it takes that much force per band to load them. Some divers prefer to have a larger number of easier bands, other divers prefer one hard to pull band. Past injuries or surgeries may impact your choice on bands. Make sure your speargun is designed to accept your band diameter of choice before purchasing. Some muzzles may not be able to accept some larger band diameters. 

Small ID Bands

In the past few years Small Internal Diameter (ID) bands have increased in popularity. The idea behind them is the bands have more rubber inside them, which adds more stored energy to smaller bands. This makes the bands a little harder to load than the standard ID bands. Many people feel their spear accelerates faster as a result of the smaller diameter bands.

Load Assists

Load assists are particularly helpful if you have had some type of shoulder injury or surgery. They are also beneficial for loading very long spearguns or roller spearguns. The idea is you can hook the load assist to the band’s wishbone and load the load assist to the spear notch. Then you can finish the band load with the band already partially loaded.

Cheater Tabs

Some spear shafts can be customized to have additional loading tabs added further forward on the spear shaft. These are supposed to work in a similar way to the load assists, in that you partially load your speargun in order to get into a better position to complete the load. They are frequently called ‘cheater tabs’ because they make it easier to load the speargun. The term is is just so guys can give each other a hard time. In reality they help folks that have had injuries or surgeries that would otherwise keep them from properly loading their spearguns. 

Olympus Digital Camera

The Secret to Landing Big Fish Spearfishing!

What’s the secret to landing a trophy fish spearfishing? Customers ask us this question all the time. The answer is very simple—pay attention to the details on your gear.

Regular Trips

On a simple day trip, always check your rigging. Your bands’ wishbones should be solid and the rubber free of dry-rot. Your shaft should be straight. Make sure your slip-tip is sitting properly on the base. Cable needs to be kink free and spectra cannot be frayed. If you forget to check these details when hunting the common small fish (sheephead, calico bass, hogfish, or mangrove snapper), you may have no problems landing them. However, if you forget any of these when the 50+ pound white sea bass or monster cobia makes an appearance, your prize may swim away with a trophy of its own!

Bluewater Spearfishing

If it’s a big blue-water trip, check everything, then check it all again! If your shooting line is cable, it should be new and double crimped, if it’s dyneema/spectra, it needs to be free of abrasions, tears, and UV exposure. Slip-tips with spectra/cable need to be in new condition, just like the shooting line. Check your tuna clips, as they are a moving part and can wear out. Swivels should be corrosion-free as well.

The monster fish in blue water are so powerful that it is hard to believe until you witness it. Your gear is tested to its limit on these less common, big fish (wahoo, yellowfin tuna, bluefin tuna, dogtooth tuna, or marlin). These fish take off with lighting speed and the battle can last for 2 hours or more. If there is a weak spot in your gear, these big fish will find it. You will regret not paying attention to those details and forever tell the story about the one that got away!

You never know what is going to swim by you on any day of diving. Your trophy fish can be speared on a simple day trip or a big blue-water trip, so be prepared on every adventure by checking the details on your gear!

Mentor

Mentoring New Freedivers – Why Its Important to Bring New People Into The Sport

Freediving and spearfishing are rapidly growing in popularity all over the world. It makes sense, these sports are too much fun not to participate in. The simplicity of holding your breath and harvesting your own food is an easily appreciated activity. With all that being said, there are defiantly some learning curves to freediving and spearfishing. Mentoring new freedivers is an integral part of growing and improving the sport. Finding a good mentor or instructor makes a huge difference to the safety and level of enjoyment from diving.

Why We Need To Grow The Sport

With the sport growing the way it is, we need to make sure it grows the way we want it to. It is easy for experienced divers to brush off new divers as a nuisance. In some respects they are. But they are the future of the sport, and if we neglect new divers they won’t learn the etiquette that we hope to see in every diver. Keep that in mind next time you meet someone starting out and think about showing them the ropes.

How To Approach Mentors

If you are new to freediving or spearfishing there are definitely a couple ways to meet new people that can help you learn what you are doing. The first path into the sport is to take a freediving course. Not all instructors are made equally,  so ask questions and get a feel for the instructor before signing up. The most important in a good instructor is their ability to convey information in an accessible way. You should also seek out a safety conscious instructor. Beyond that, just try and find an instructor with a style and attitude that meets your comfort.

Clubs and Organizations

An instructor can also be a wealth of knowledge about resources and groups in your area for free divers. Clubs and training groups are one of the greatest methods of finding a good group of divers and potential mentors. The best practice for people getting into the sport is to accept that you have a lot to learn. That means you shouldn’t act like you know everything about the sport because you took on two or three day freediving course last weekend. There are aspects of diving that will never be covered in a course. Be willing to learn from other divers, but always remember the safety aspects of your free dive course in everything you do.

Dive Shops and Charters

Dive shops and the dive trips they host are another great way to to meet new divers. The charter boats themselves also offer a great opportunity to meet other divers and potential mentors, especially on split trips. Many shops and charters offer the opportunity to take courses or guide you on a trip. Additionally, dive shops tend to attract other divers. You can often find people willing to assist you in these locations.

The Mentor and Mentee Relationship

Mentor and Mentee relationships tend to develop organically. It would be a little awkward if a new diver just walked up to someone with more experience and just said “Hey, would you like to be my mentor?”. Typically these things start with a few questions about how to do something better, or tips on improvement. Be open to critique and suggestions. 

How To Mentor

Once you develop some experience it is easy to get in your own rhythm with your group of divers. Remember you didn’t get to that point by yourself. When a newer diver approaches you don’t be a jerk. It sounds simple, but just go onto any forum on the internet and see the toxic environment that tends to develop around people asking questions because they are new. Just be a decent person and help new people out form time to time. I’m not saying you need to take every new person that asks out on your boat to mess up your day. There definitely  needs to be a balance. Just remember that we do want the sport to grow. With that said, the best way to get it to grow the way we want is to help guide it in that direction. Mentoring new freedivers can end up being one of the more rewarding experiences within the sport.

Be Courteous to One Another

The short version is to just be nice to one another. Whether you are starting out or have several decades of experience just try to be helpful to one another.

Safety

Spearfishing is one of the most dangerous sports an adventurer can pursue.  The following will help you safely navigate the pursuit of underwater hunting.

  1. Notify a responsible person of your dive plans just in case you don’t return on time so they know when to call for search and recovery and where to tell them to search. Remember to let them know you have safely returned.
  2. ALWAYS DIVE WITH A BUDDY. There are a host of spearfishing dangers that everyone should be aware of. First and most important is to always dive with a buddy, never alone.
  3. Activate the quick release in your weight belt if yo have an emergency.
  4. Speargun Safety – Always treat your speargun like it is a loaded gun! When talking to your partner on the surface, don’t put your gun under your arm or between your legs because you are now pointing a loaded gun at him – not a good thing. Don’t bring a loaded gun onto the boat, even if you are just quickly hoping spots.  It just isn’t worth the risk.
  5. Make positive identification on the fish, and what is behind the fish, before you pull the trigger.  It may save your thumb, your gun, your life, or your dive buddy’s life.
  6. Take a Freediving Class to learn about the principals of freediving and how to save your dive buddy.
  7. Get yourself and your dive buddy trained in CPR and First Aide.
  8. Be aware of  the topography of the location you are diving. Understand that the more water that is being restricted, the stronger the current.  That is why there is more current near pinnacles, underwater walls, islands and points.
  9. Know the tide tables for the day and expect the current to be stronger when the slope of the tide is highest.  Also watch for the current to change directions when the tide changes but sometimes it will just get stronger with a tide change
  10. Work out for diving.  It is a sport and you need to be an athlete.  Train like your life depends on it … because it does.
  11. If you are a beginner, don’t plan a full 5-6 hour competitive dive tournament.  Plan to do half the dive.  Work up to longer dive days.
  12. Make sure that you are properly weighted for your spearfishing wetsuit and dive conditions.
  13. Beware of the other ocean predators in the environment you are diving in, not just sharks. Seals, barracuda, and even large groupers are capable of taking your fish and could potentially get entangled in your gear.
  14. Stay hydrated. Proper hydration is critical for proper equalization.
  15. Divers can be in danger from inattentive boaters, especially in heavy boat traffic areas. A float with a flag and a floatline helps keep boaters aware of divers in the water.
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Speargun Basics – What You Need To Know

If you are just getting into spearfishing you may have a few questions about spearguns and how they work. Fortunately, they are no overly complicated tools. There will be variations in different manufacturers designs, but the basic construction is pretty similar. We will cover some speargun basics and go over some of the common questions we get from people just getting into spearfishing.

What is a Speargun?

A speargun is any tube shaped item that holds a spear shaft which is propelled by stored energy that is released with some type of trigger mechanism for use underwater. That stored energy can be from pulling back bands that connect to the spear shaft through notches bin the spear shaft. The energy can also be stored through pushing a spear shaft through a pneumatic tube into a trigger mechanism. They work by storing this energy safely and by being able to release the spear shaft to be shot at a fish at the right time. 

Are Spearguns Illegal? 

Every country has their own laws. Within some countries different regions may have even more specific restrictions. The short answer is that you need to check in your area to find out if spearguns are legal. Most states in the United States are open to spearfishing. The Bahamas and Bermuda have outlawed them, but allow pole spears and Hawaiian slings. 

Is a Speargun a Firearm?

No! Spearguns are powered by latex rubber bands or pressurized air. Firearms are powered by an explosion of a propellent that causes large amounts of pressure in a restricted space facing a small projectile through a narrow space. Don’t go through your local airport shouting that you have a speargun. The general public is not overly aware of the differences. So while traveling it may be best to refer to your gear as “fishing equipment”, unless you feel like filling out a lot of paperwork and getting some interesting questions from security and the airline. Many people ask about a spear rifle. This is a confused term. Rifles are firearms with a rifled barrel designed to spin the bullet as it passes through a barrel to increase accuracy at range. The short ranges of spearguns makes rifling is unnecessary.

Can You Use One Out Of The Water?

No! Can you physically load a speargun and fire it out of the water? You can if you are an idiot. Spearguns are designed to be used in an environment with water resistance. That water resistance helps with recoil and reduces the range of the spear shaft. That water resistance also helps by increasing the spear shaft’s accuracy. DO NOT FIRE SPEARGUNS OUT OF THE WATER. For more information on speargun safety please read this blog post. 

What is The Best All Around Length?

There is no perfect length for all diving everything. It is a continuous effort that many builders have been trying to create from the beginning. There are good general lengths that cover most diving. As you get further into spearfishing you will find that the right tool for the job makes a big difference. You will end up collecting quite a few as time goes by. For more information on picking the right gun length for your diving check out this post as a speargun length guide. 

What is The Difference Between a Speargun and a Harpoon Gun?

We already went over what a speargun is earlier. You mount Harpoon Guns to the deck of a boat. It fires a harpoon in order to retrieve large fish, like Tunas and Billfish. Some of the biggest differences are that harpoon guns are used from out of the water shoot into the water. You shoot spearguns in the water at fish that are also in the water.

Prices

There are a wide range of prices on the market. You get what you pay for with spearguns. There are plenty of inexpensive ones on the market, but make sure you you are getting a quality gun for the price. A cheap speargun may end up costing you more long term that the right purchase from the start. The cost of regular repair and maintenance can quickly get you ‘cheap’ speargun over the price of a quality Rob Allen or Amero very quickly. Most spearguns will cost between $260 up to well over $1000 depending on the type and quality you are looking for. There are even some spearguns on the market for well over $3000.

What is a Speargun’s Range?

Band stretch distance determines range. Most will shoot between two to three times the distance from the back of the band slot to the notch where the bands connect to the spear shaft. Roller guns are the exception to this rule, because the starting point of the bands is different. For more information check out this post on how roller spearguns work. Range is important for some spearfishing, but it shouldn’t b e the only thing you look for in your speargun. That means you need enough power to send the spear shaft through the fish. You also have to make sure you don’t overpower your speargun. Overpowering the speargun will c use major inaccuracy in your shots. 

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Speargun Safety – The Basics 

Why Speargun Safety is Important 

Spearfishing is one of the most fun sports you can participate in. That being said, there are risks involved. Speargun safety is one of the most fundamental aspects of preventing spearfishing accidents. New divers always think that their greatest risks are from sharks or other environmental issues, but the reality is your greatest risks come from other divers. Every few months there seems to be a diver that is shot with their own or another divers speargun. There are a couple rules you can impose on yourself that will prevent any problems with this. 

The Basic Rules

    • Never load a speargun out of the water
    • Do not fire a speargun out of water
    • Never point a speargun at anything you do not want to kill
    • Keep you finger away from the trigger until you are ready to shoot
    • Know what is behind your target
    • Ensure there are not tangles in your rigging
    • Never rely on the speargun safety

A Better Breakdown

Here is a more in depth breakdown of why these rules are so important.

Use Out of The Water

Never load or fire a speargun out of the water. Spearguns need water resistance to function properly. The amount of force stored in the bands is capable of shooting a spear up to 20 feet underwater. These same bands out of the water can launch these spears over 200 feet. There is no safe way to control that kind of shot. 

Speargun Safety Compared to Firearm Safety

Most of the other rules are taken from basic firearm safety, but the same rules apply with spearguns. It stands to reason that you can’t shoot your buddy if you never point your speargun at them. That means never pulling the trigger of a fish directly between you and your buddy. Accidentally hitting you dive buddy with a spear is much less likely if you keep your finger away from the trigger until you are ready to shoot. That being said, The trigger can get caught on tons of things in the underwater environment. Be aware of your surroundings and maintain control of your speargun, especially if it is loaded.

Speargun Specific Considerations

Tangles in the shooting lines and bands are a major concern. This can be catastrophic because of the amount of force involved and extremely dangerous to all the divers in the vicinity. Always load your speargun properly.

Speargun Safeties

The last key element is to never rely on your spearguns safety. Speargun safeties are notorious for failing. Many custom gun builder do not even bother installing them into their spearguns because they can be so frustrating.

Riffe 600

Riffe Speargun Series – A Look at Riffe Speargun Models

Riffe has been on the forefront of spearfishing since the 1970s. With decades of consistently creating quality spearfishing equipment it only makes sense that their spearguns are held in high regard. We will be taking a look at some of their more popular models of today.

Riffe Euro

The Riffe Euro Speargun is easily one of the best freediving wooden spearguns on the market. The Euro is streamline and easy to track through the water. This speargun is powered by two 5/8” (16mm) power bands that can be easily taken on or off the speargun. This wooden speargun has the power to make accurate shots at a great range. Riffe has set the trigger for this speargun near the back of the speargun to allow for maximum power for the length of the speargun. The rear handle design ensures easy point and shoot capability. Overall, this wooden speargun is hard to beat, with many models coming in both open and enclosed track options. 

The Competitor

The Riffe Competitor Speargun series is a classic. This particular design has been around, in some form, for around 20 years. The reason it has been around so long is simple: it works! With a narrow design it is easy to see and track your fish as you are looking down the speargun. This speargun is easily hip loaded, as the trigger is located further forward on the stock. With a traditional band slot it is easy to install pre-made power bands on this mahogany wooden speargun. 

Riffe Marauder

The Riffe Marauder Speargun is a great design for some bluewater spearfishing. The laminated mahogany stock helps prevent warping. The cuttlefish body design adds mass, while still allowing the speargun to track easily through the water. The added mass reduces recoil, allowing for more power on the speargun. The added power translates to more penetration through fish from further away. This makes the Riffe Marauder a tempting option. Available in three lengths, there are plenty of options for success.

Co2 Tables

Freedive Training: Cardio, Intervals, CO2 and O2 Tables

Freevive training can be a complicated process for many people. Just about every dive will agree that the best way to train for breeding is to freedive. Nothing beats in water experience. Unfortunately, not everyone has the time or access to be in the water as much as we would like. Fortunately there are several ways to train for freedivng outside of being in the water. It should be noted that these training techniques try to help the same muscle groups and mental skills that are helpful in freediving. Remember, never train freediving in the water without a dive buddy that understands rescue protocol.

Cardio: How Endurance Improves Freediving

There are a lucky group of people that actually enjoy cardio. Those people are widely considered crazy by the rest of us. The rest of us just need to grin and bear it when we are doing cardio and recognize that doing some of it will help us enjoy other hobbies. The biggest benefit of cardio in freediving is building up endurance. There is nothing worse than getting in the water in a strong current and struggling to be able to dive because you are running out of energy on the surface. Implementing a regular cardio routine has untold benefits to allowing you to enjoy a long day in the water. Some great activities that help also build up you leg muscles are swimming, biking, and of course running.

Intervals: Improving Recovery and Anaerobic Exercise

If there is anything more unpleasant to train than cardio it has to be intervals. It takes the unpleasantness of cardio and magnifies it with the feeling like your heart and lungs are going to explode. For those of you unfamiliar with Interval workouts the more familiar term is sprints. Sprints can be applied to any of the previously mentioned cardio exercises. Basically just push yourself further than you can sustain.

If you are running you can do distance intervals or timing intervals. Runt to a light pole, walk to the next light pole, or run 30 seconds then walk 60 seconds. Swimming can be swimming hard for a lap, recover for a lap. This process is designed to spike your heart rate and helps train your body to recover from anaerobic exercises quicker. Anaerobic exercise is any exercise that uses more oxygen than your body can replace in the amount of time the exercise continues. You can understand how this type of exercise could be helpful I training for freediving.

CO2 and O2 Tables: Training the Mind to Accept Discomfort

CO2 and O2 tables are useful tool in getting your body used to holding its breath. They eat h work in different ways to improve this goal.  

CO2 tables focus on getting a build up of CO2 in your body. ?This helps your body become accustomed to that discomfort that makes your mind think you need to breathe. It is not a lack of oxygen that makes you think you need to breathe, but the build up of CO2. By regularly exposing your body to increased levels of CO2 it pushes your mental limits of what your body considers normal. The method of doing this is typically to hold your breath for a consistent amount of time and to reduce the amount of time you breath up before holding your breath.

O2 Tables work on a similar principle but in an inverse way. O2 tables allow for a more gradual buildup of CO2 by having a consistent breath up and holding your breath for longer and longer intervals.